Only one skeleton of this sauropod has been discovered and that was in 1984. However, this solo skeleton was essentially complete making Amargasaurus well known. This animal was small for a sauropod only reaching 9-10 (30-33 feet) in length and weigh up to 2.9 tons (5,800 pounds). Amargasaurus is a part of the family of sauropods known as the Dicraeosauridae and like other members within this family they too had relatively short necks (of about 2.4 meters or 7.9 feet). And that is where this sauropod's unique feature lies... Amargasaurus' cervical vertebrae were installed with upwardly elongated neural spines. The neural spines were bifurcated down the entire neck thus creating a double row. The longest of these spines was located on the eighth cervical and reached 24 inches in length. The true purpose and appearance of these spines is still currently unknown. It is, however, possible that these spines were covered in keratinous sheaths (which could add alot of length to the overall structure) similar to present day bovids such as antelopes, bison, and goats. These spines may have been used as a weapon against carnivores when the sauropod's neck was lowered and suddenly pulled backwards when the predator attacked. Other uses could possibly include display for courtship or intimidation for rivals. Some scientists have also hypothesized that rivaling males would interlock their spines when fighting. And a more bizarre hypothesis was made by Gregory Paul in 2000, he thought the spines could have rattled into one another when the animal shook its neck; creating sound.
In 1997, Jack Bailey suggested that the spines of Amargasaurus supported a sail used for display. Though unlike other sail-bearing animals such as Dimetrodon, Amargasaurus' neural spines were forked, creating a double row along the neck and back. The possibility of possessing two parallel sails only 3-7 centimeters apart seemed unlikely. Also, the presence of a sail on the neck would hinder flexibility.
A seaman meets a pirate in a bar, and talk turns to their adventures on the sea. The seaman notes that the pirate has a peg-leg, a hook, and an eye patch. The seaman asked, "So, how did you end up with the peg-leg?" The pirate replied, "We were in a storm at sea, and I was swept overboard into a school of sharks. Just as me men were pulling me out, a shark bit me leg off." "Wow!" said the seaman. "What about your hook"? "Well", replied the pirate, "We were boarding an enemy ship and were battling the other sailors with swords. One of the enemy cut me hand off." "Incredible!" remarked the seaman. "How did you get the eye patch"? "A seagull dropping fell into me eye," replied the pirate. "You lost your eye to a seagull dropping?," the sailor asked incredulously. "Well," said the pirate, "that be me first day with me hook"
Have been selling buying trading for a while I'm too cheap and frugal to buy a premium trader account, otherwise my feedback would be at least double that of the 5 limit or even more lol.
For buying trading account(s) you're interested in, preferred MM's are AXN, TRN, SHINSOO, REEF. besides being prominent figures in the neoseeker's community, I have used their services with excellent results. I reserve the right to refuse services from newcomer middlemen. Thanks.
~ if i can't summon them all, might as well try them all at least once ~ YOLO FRODO!
I've been thinking about a certain post that seems to come up every few months or so here and that is "Why are you still here?"
About a year ago, that answer would have been simple. Chimaira had the Retro Revival and I was maybe interested in helping it. I've said it many times already. I had broken a long time period of inactivity here when I got a notification from him. I didn't know it was going to blossom into something like today.
Now, Retro isn't as bopping as it was during its revival which was sort of to be expected. I'm modding there again and I feel like it is my fault for it becoming so stagnant. Some days I tell myself "Yep, this is the day I'll ask Gotenks to step down again." Others I'll be flowing with ideas. Today is one of those days I where I feel like a poor mod and that I don't deserve the spot. Truth be told, I don't. I took it because maybe I could emulate what Chimaira did about a year ago (or is it 2 now?) and Retro Gaming would be as cool as ever. allingo is the one with the good ideas. I feel like I'm just along for the ride at this point.
To go back to my original idea on why I'm here: I just don't know. It may be out of habit. It may be because I feel obligated to show up every day to check on Retro Gaming. It may be because I enjoy posting updates on Payday 2. It may be because people like Dark Xionei, Intoxication, sword_of_omens, and others enjoy my Vault tales.
I am not leaving the site. As much as I may say I am, I cannot. There's always going to be that one game I'm running or one write up I'm doing that sits in my mind and tells me "Cap, you gotta show up on Neoseeker since people think your post is kind of cool." Trust me, I tried to put an end to that kind of stuff, but then on my up days I start something new so my down days can hate me for it.
Anyway, I'm still here. I might step down or I might not. I don't know. What I will tell you is that there's always gonna be something here for me to do.
Concavenator is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now known as Spain during the early Cretaceous period. The type species being C. corcovatus which translates to "hump-backed hunter of Cuenca".
Concavenator was named in 2010 and is considered to be a basic carcharodontosaurian dinosaur of medium size (about 20 feet in length) being related to larger and more popular predators like Carcharodontosaurus and Giganotosaurus. However, Concavenator seemed to be unique... It possessed two elongated vertebrae located just before the pelvis that would have formed a tall and narrow hump on the animal's back. The purpose of this hump is unknown although it is theorized that it was used for either display, storage of fatty tissues, or aid in thermoregulation.
On the ulna of the dinosaur's forearms there appears to be the presence of quill knobs or homologous structures. Birds and some feathered dinosaurs like Velociraptor also have quill knobs present on their ulnas...it is believed that these knobs were used to anchor down hollow, quill-like structures. That's not all, wide and rectangular shaped scales were also preserved on the underside of the tail, bird-like scutes on the feet, and pads on the bottom of the feet -- all of which contribute to an interesting discovery.
Selling my level 241 account as I no longer have the time to commit to this game. Hoping someone can continue the domination of this account. I completed entire summer season, obtaining top stones for Kinnarus, Borgian, Zamrok, Nydryr, and the top drag Merkt. This account has had over $3,000 spent on it, placing in the global leaderboard for nearly every event. Currently breeding Garnet eggs, moving to Emerald after 3 more drags, (Avalanche, Zaru, and AA). Stats/pics below, feel free to ask questions.
Attack: 211m Defense: 55.6m Medals: approx 20m All farms at level 42 Storage at 61 Several level 43 towers TONS of shards saved up! Over 6 months elite account remaining
Emerald Dragon Stones for: -Kinnarus (now level 45) -Borgian (now level 45) -Aster (now level 45) -Nydryr (now level 37) -Zamrok (now level 18, haven't used him much yet)
OBSIDIAN STONE! -Merkt (now level 41)
This combination of drags has proven more powerful than players well above my level. A proper hit with Borgian or Hauheset and Kinnarus can take bases close to level 400. Enjoy!
All pics at found at this link. Not sure how to post pics on here.add me line loyaltyhonor
We're back at it again with prehistory's weirdest and most wonderful creatures. This time we will be featuring Prolibytherium. This even-toed ungulate lived during the Early Miocene and inhabited North Africa and Middle East and the name of this strange beast means "Before Libya's Beast".
Prolibytherium is a prime example of extreme sexual dimorphism. The first feature you probably noticed were their horns -- or more appropriately, their ossicones. The males had broad, leaf-shaped ossicones that could measure 14 inches in width while the females had slender, horn-like ossicones. However, as far as taxonomy goes Prolibytherium is an uncertainty... Currently Prolibytherium is described as a climacoceratid (a family that is close to the ancestry of giraffes), but in the past Prolibytherium was described as a palaeomerycid or basal Giraffoidea.
What is an Ossicone? An ossicone is a horn-like protrusion seen on the heads of giraffes, male okapis, and their extinct relatives. Unlike horns, ossicones aren't made up of living bone they are actually made up of ossified cartilage. Ossicones are also covered in skin and fur; not horny keratin. Antlers on the other hand consist of bone tissue and once mature the skin and fur (called "velvet") is scraped away to reveal the bone.
Prehistory has shown us a good deal of giants...but what about the birds? Specifically the birds capable of flight? Read this to learn more about a pair of prehistoric big birds.
Discovered in 1980 Argentavis magnificens held the record for the largest flying bird in history. The size and structure of A. magnificens' wings show scientists that this bird mostly flew by soaring and only flapping its wings for short journeys. This bird could have also relied on thermal currents to keep itself in the skies. Scientists have estimated that the minimal flying velocity of A. magnificens' wings of about 25mph (40kmh). A. magnificens possessed strong and stocky legs; legs strong enough to give the bird a running and jumping start. However, A. magnificens still needed the aid of the wind to takeoff...so the mountains could've been a perfect environment.
Argentavis magnificens: -Wingspan Max: 7m (22 feet) -Height: ~1.5 to 2m (about 5 to 6.5 feet) -Weight: 70-72kg (154-159 lbs)
In 2014, A. magnificens' record of largest flying bird (in terms of wingspan) was challenged and broken by Pelagornis sandersi. The wingspan of P. sandersi is about double the wingspan of the current largest flying bird, the Wandering albatross (max wingspan of ~3.5m). P. sandersi had small legs so its takeoff probably consisted of hopping off cliffs. The relatively small body and long wings of this bird coupled with the rising currents from the oceans in which it flew over allowed this prehistoric giant to stay in the air.
There is no doubt that some flying birds have reached some massive sizes throughout prehistory, but even Argentavis and Pelagornis aren't anything special compared to the azhdarchid pterosaurs of the Cretaceous period like Quetzalcoatlus...
The K-T extinction, abbreviation of Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction, also known as the K-Pg Extinction or the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction, was one of the major mass extinctions that marked the end of the dinosaurs. This event wiped out three quarters of all animal species on Earth and many of those species played important roles throughout the Mesozoic Era. Yet out of the "Big 5" mass extinctions this one only ranks #3.
Over the centuries there have been many hypotheses to what caused the K-T extinction. However, only a few have been seriously taken into consideration... Hypotheses such as tectonic drift, increased volcanic activity, widespread disease, outcompeted by mammals, and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from a nearby supernova. In 1980 a new theory was proposed by Luis Alvarez and Walter Alvarez that a comet or asteroid struck the planet and triggered a series of events that carried out the mass extinction. This theory has some good credibility to it, but still, even today there are various opinions.
About 66,000,000 years ago a large asteroid 6-9 miles (10-15 kilometers) in diameter struck the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico creating the Chicxulub Crater, an impact crater that is 112 miles (180 km) in diameter and 12 miles (20 km) in depth. The explosive energy of the impact is estimated to be equal to 100 teratons of TNT compared to the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated Tsar Bomba of 50 megatons and "Little Boy" (the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in WWII) of a mere 15 kilotons.
The explosive impact sent megatsumanis across the Gulf of Mexico and onto the North American coasts. The height of these waves could have reached upto 100 meters (330 feet) compared to the 10 meter (33 foot) tall waves produced by the Japan Tsunami in 2011. However, the waves caused by the asteroid's impact could have reached a whopping 3 miles (5 km) high if only the asteroid landed in deep ocean and not a shallow sea like it did. A massive cloud of super-heated dust, ash, and steam would have immediately spread from the crater. Debris from the asteroid and the direct area shot into the atmosphere by the sheer force of the impact. Upon reentry, the material was heated to incandescence; scorching the Earth's surface and potentially igniting global wildfires. On top of that, the returning ejecta into the atmosphere sent out a powerful pulse of infrared radiation lasting for a few hours -- killing the exposed life. Plus, the astronomical shockwaves from the impact triggered earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions that wrecked havoc across the planet.
Judging by the elliptical shape of the Chicxulub crater, the asteroid struck Earth at an angle of about 30° meaning most of the dust and debris was shot to the northwest. To make things worse, the asteroid struck a region of sulfur-rich carbonate rocks, much of which was vaporized, and threw sulfuric acid aerosols into the stratosphere. This made the rain and ocean waters acidic and the acidification of the oceans killed many marine organisms that built their defensive shells from calcium carbonate. Also, it would have blocked out the sun for months, years, even up to a decade. With little to no sunlight many plants and phytoplankton would not have survived...and with so little to eat the larger herbivores died and soon the carnivores would fall. Scavengers had a bit easier of a time, but after awhile even they began to struggle. Large animals failed to survive the strict conditions and in fact, most animals over 20 pounds did not survive.
Even after this catastrophe life found a way... the planet eventually recovered and the survivors experienced adaptive radiation. Now that the non-avian dinosaurs were gone the mammals were free to do as they pleased and quickly spread across the planet. Birds, fish, and reptiles also underwent adaptive radiation. This is a new beginning. Life after the dinosaurs.