Concavenator is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now known as Spain during the early Cretaceous period. The type species being C. corcovatus which translates to "hump-backed hunter of Cuenca".
Concavenator was named in 2010 and is considered to be a basic carcharodontosaurian dinosaur of medium size (about 20 feet in length) being related to larger and more popular predators like Carcharodontosaurus and Giganotosaurus. However, Concavenator seemed to be unique... It possessed two elongated vertebrae located just before the pelvis that would have formed a tall and narrow hump on the animal's back. The purpose of this hump is unknown although it is theorized that it was used for either display, storage of fatty tissues, or aid in thermoregulation.
On the ulna of the dinosaur's forearms there appears to be the presence of quill knobs or homologous structures. Birds and some feathered dinosaurs like Velociraptor also have quill knobs present on their ulnas...it is believed that these knobs were used to anchor down hollow, quill-like structures. That's not all, wide and rectangular shaped scales were also preserved on the underside of the tail, bird-like scutes on the feet, and pads on the bottom of the feet -- all of which contribute to an interesting discovery.
Selling my level 241 account as I no longer have the time to commit to this game. Hoping someone can continue the domination of this account. I completed entire summer season, obtaining top stones for Kinnarus, Borgian, Zamrok, Nydryr, and the top drag Merkt. This account has had over $3,000 spent on it, placing in the global leaderboard for nearly every event. Currently breeding Garnet eggs, moving to Emerald after 3 more drags, (Avalanche, Zaru, and AA). Stats/pics below, feel free to ask questions.
Attack: 211m Defense: 55.6m Medals: approx 20m All farms at level 42 Storage at 61 Several level 43 towers TONS of shards saved up! Over 6 months elite account remaining
Emerald Dragon Stones for: -Kinnarus (now level 45) -Borgian (now level 45) -Aster (now level 45) -Nydryr (now level 37) -Zamrok (now level 18, haven't used him much yet)
OBSIDIAN STONE! -Merkt (now level 41)
This combination of drags has proven more powerful than players well above my level. A proper hit with Borgian or Hauheset and Kinnarus can take bases close to level 400. Enjoy!
All pics at found at this link. Not sure how to post pics on here.add me line loyaltyhonor
We're back at it again with prehistory's weirdest and most wonderful creatures. This time we will be featuring Prolibytherium. This even-toed ungulate lived during the Early Miocene and inhabited North Africa and Middle East and the name of this strange beast means "Before Libya's Beast".
Prolibytherium is a prime example of extreme sexual dimorphism. The first feature you probably noticed were their horns -- or more appropriately, their ossicones. The males had broad, leaf-shaped ossicones that could measure 14 inches in width while the females had slender, horn-like ossicones. However, as far as taxonomy goes Prolibytherium is an uncertainty... Currently Prolibytherium is described as a climacoceratid (a family that is close to the ancestry of giraffes), but in the past Prolibytherium was described as a palaeomerycid or basal Giraffoidea.
What is an Ossicone? An ossicone is a horn-like protrusion seen on the heads of giraffes, male okapis, and their extinct relatives. Unlike horns, ossicones aren't made up of living bone they are actually made up of ossified cartilage. Ossicones are also covered in skin and fur; not horny keratin. Antlers on the other hand consist of bone tissue and once mature the skin and fur (called "velvet") is scraped away to reveal the bone.
Prehistory has shown us a good deal of giants...but what about the birds? Specifically the birds capable of flight? Read this to learn more about a pair of prehistoric big birds.
Discovered in 1980 Argentavis magnificens held the record for the largest flying bird in history. The size and structure of A. magnificens' wings show scientists that this bird mostly flew by soaring and only flapping its wings for short journeys. This bird could have also relied on thermal currents to keep itself in the skies. Scientists have estimated that the minimal flying velocity of A. magnificens' wings of about 25mph (40kmh). A. magnificens possessed strong and stocky legs; legs strong enough to give the bird a running and jumping start. However, A. magnificens still needed the aid of the wind to takeoff...so the mountains could've been a perfect environment.
Argentavis magnificens: -Wingspan Max: 7m (22 feet) -Height: ~1.5 to 2m (about 5 to 6.5 feet) -Weight: 70-72kg (154-159 lbs)
In 2014, A. magnificens' record of largest flying bird (in terms of wingspan) was challenged and broken by Pelagornis sandersi. The wingspan of P. sandersi is about double the wingspan of the current largest flying bird, the Wandering albatross (max wingspan of ~3.5m). P. sandersi had small legs so its takeoff probably consisted of hopping off cliffs. The relatively small body and long wings of this bird coupled with the rising currents from the oceans in which it flew over allowed this prehistoric giant to stay in the air.
There is no doubt that some flying birds have reached some massive sizes throughout prehistory, but even Argentavis and Pelagornis aren't anything special compared to the azhdarchid pterosaurs of the Cretaceous period like Quetzalcoatlus...
The K-T extinction, abbreviation of Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction, also known as the K-Pg Extinction or the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction, was one of the major mass extinctions that marked the end of the dinosaurs. This event wiped out three quarters of all animal species on Earth and many of those species played important roles throughout the Mesozoic Era. Yet out of the "Big 5" mass extinctions this one only ranks #3.
Over the centuries there have been many hypotheses to what caused the K-T extinction. However, only a few have been seriously taken into consideration... Hypotheses such as tectonic drift, increased volcanic activity, widespread disease, outcompeted by mammals, and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from a nearby supernova. In 1980 a new theory was proposed by Luis Alvarez and Walter Alvarez that a comet or asteroid struck the planet and triggered a series of events that carried out the mass extinction. This theory has some good credibility to it, but still, even today there are various opinions.
About 66,000,000 years ago a large asteroid 6-9 miles (10-15 kilometers) in diameter struck the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico creating the Chicxulub Crater, an impact crater that is 112 miles (180 km) in diameter and 12 miles (20 km) in depth. The explosive energy of the impact is estimated to be equal to 100 teratons of TNT compared to the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated Tsar Bomba of 50 megatons and "Little Boy" (the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in WWII) of a mere 15 kilotons.
The explosive impact sent megatsumanis across the Gulf of Mexico and onto the North American coasts. The height of these waves could have reached upto 100 meters (330 feet) compared to the 10 meter (33 foot) tall waves produced by the Japan Tsunami in 2011. However, the waves caused by the asteroid's impact could have reached a whopping 3 miles (5 km) high if only the asteroid landed in deep ocean and not a shallow sea like it did. A massive cloud of super-heated dust, ash, and steam would have immediately spread from the crater. Debris from the asteroid and the direct area shot into the atmosphere by the sheer force of the impact. Upon reentry, the material was heated to incandescence; scorching the Earth's surface and potentially igniting global wildfires. On top of that, the returning ejecta into the atmosphere sent out a powerful pulse of infrared radiation lasting for a few hours -- killing the exposed life. Plus, the astronomical shockwaves from the impact triggered earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions that wrecked havoc across the planet.
Judging by the elliptical shape of the Chicxulub crater, the asteroid struck Earth at an angle of about 30° meaning most of the dust and debris was shot to the northwest. To make things worse, the asteroid struck a region of sulfur-rich carbonate rocks, much of which was vaporized, and threw sulfuric acid aerosols into the stratosphere. This made the rain and ocean waters acidic and the acidification of the oceans killed many marine organisms that built their defensive shells from calcium carbonate. Also, it would have blocked out the sun for months, years, even up to a decade. With little to no sunlight many plants and phytoplankton would not have survived...and with so little to eat the larger herbivores died and soon the carnivores would fall. Scavengers had a bit easier of a time, but after awhile even they began to struggle. Large animals failed to survive the strict conditions and in fact, most animals over 20 pounds did not survive.
Even after this catastrophe life found a way... the planet eventually recovered and the survivors experienced adaptive radiation. Now that the non-avian dinosaurs were gone the mammals were free to do as they pleased and quickly spread across the planet. Birds, fish, and reptiles also underwent adaptive radiation. This is a new beginning. Life after the dinosaurs.
The Cretaceous period is the last period of the Mesozoic era and lasted for 79,000,000 years from the end of the Jurassic to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66mya.
In the Cretaceous period the supercontinent Pangaea finished breaking up into the seven continents that we know today. However, at the beginning stages of the Cretaceous, Gondwana had yet to break up into Antarctica, South America, Africa, Australia, and Mauritia (the microcontinent containing India and Madagascar). All of this tectonic commotion created both the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Meanwhile, the Atlantic Ocean continued to widen, the Tethys Sea (the sea that separated Laurasia from Gondwana) continued to narrow. The Earth at this time was experiencing a warm climate and because of this underwent high eustatic sea levels thus creating various shallow inland seas. And in North America and Europe shallow inland seas advanced, the most popular being the Western Interior Seaway of North America. Many organisms inhabited these seas and oceans, the most noteworthy being the marine reptiles, ammonites, an abundance of fish, and others.
On land, the dinosaurs continued to rule and some all-time favorites such as Tyrannosaurus and Triceratops made an introduction at the closing of this period. The Cretaceous introduced some new faces as well...new groups of mammals and birds appeared, along with the first flowering plants. Speaking of the evolution of angiosperms, bees also evolved to assist the new flowers. This is a prime example of coevolution.
Unfortunately, about 66 million years ago a massive asteroid, the size of Mount Everest, will strike the planet -- erasing three quarters of all life on Earth.
Facing too many sadness for the past few months, life is really unexpected and vulnerable. So cherish whatever or whoever by your side at this moment, don't wait because the next second is totally unpredictable...