You may know these beasts by their alternative name, the 'Terminator Pigs.' Whatever you wish to call them these are the entelodonts and despite what you think you know these aren't really pigs at all! In the past, entelodonts were classified as members of Suina, however, Spaulding et al. have came to the conclusion that these omnivores were more closely related to hippos and whales rather than pigs.
Entelodonts packed powerful, box-like bodies with heavy heads; making them a formidable threat to any animal. The skull harnessed the enlarged jugals (cheekbones) which is believed to have been a mounting point for surplus of jaw muscles; giving the entelodonts an insane bite force. Additionally they had a mouthful of teeth ranging from incisors, canines, pre-molars, and molars. The legs were short and surprisingly thin for such a large animal, but would allow them to reach high running speeds over a short distance.
Then we come to the debate as to what these animals ate. Entelodonts have been described as herbivores due to their pig-like characteristics, using their large canines to devour roots and tubers. Although with so much new information on these animals we can guarantee to you that they were not strictly herbivores. For one, the incisors were angled forward to grab flesh or bone instead of downwards like in other primary herbivores used for cropping plants. And two, a herbivore wouldn't benefit much from having such a strong bite. When it comes to prey, almost anything was on the menu. Primitive horses, camels, rhinoceros, and even chalicotheres all bear evidence of being victims. In one instance an entelodont by the name of Archaeotherium has displayed hoarding behaviors, storing away the remains of an ancient camel to devour later. The dentition in the entelodonts allowed them to consume both meat and plants making them omnivores. But how much foliage did they eat? It is plausible that entelodonts were hyper carnivores and not feeding on plants at all. The exact ratio between meat and plants in an entelodont's diet varies among genus with some leaning towards meat.
Scavenging was also an option. With bone crushing jaws at their disposal an entelodont could crack bones of carcasses to access the nutrious bone marrow within. Not just that, but with their size an entelodont could simply steal the hard earned kill from another, smaller predator. We also know that entelodonts have keen senses of smell that help with a scavenging lifestyle. We can gain a better understanding by looking at trackways; specifically trackways in Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska, USA. This site contains a good deal of trackways left by many different mammals such as early rhinos, but it also features entelodont trackways. These entelodont trackways are shown to be following another animal, but they do so in a zigzag pattern and not in a straight line. By travelling in this zigzag fashion we know that the entelodont wasn't chasing its prey. It was tracking it and using its strong nose to narrow in on its location. Whatever the case, scavenging was a very real likelihood.
Entelodonts were rather successful animals spanning from the later parts of the Eocene period to the early Miocene (roughly a 20 million year range). And over these years the entelodonts evolved to be more powerful and the largest genera being Paraentelodon and Daeodon. Yet despite their fierce reputation the entelodonts eventually succumbed to extinction. When it comes to the topic of extinction there are often many factors at play. Here, we will go over three of the leading factors that contributed to their demise: 1. Climate Change Climate change was an on-going epidemic throughout the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Global cooling has been shifting the Earth's ecosystems from tropical forests to open grasslands which would trigger a shift in some suitable vegitation. For example, at around this time primitive horses were making the switch from browsing foliage to grazing on grass. 2. New Prey With this change in environment, the herbivores which the entelodonts preyed on also changed. Some herbivores, now with more open grasslands evolved longer legs to run faster and at a longer distance allowing them to outpace the sprinting entelodonts. And to top it off, these grasslands provided less cover for the entelodonts to hunt in which is essential for an ambush predator. 3. New Competition This last scenario is often viewed as the most likely. Entelodonts like Daeodon could have used their large size and intimidation to drive away other predators from their kills, but the early Miocene saw the rise of new predators that were bigger, more aggressive, and above all more intelligent then the simple-minded entelodonts. By the middle of the Miocene the entelodonts were overall outclassed. Not being able to steal prey, hunt faster prey, or forage on the new vegetation the entelodonts failed to adapt and in turn...died off.
Some Entelodont Genera: Archaeotherium Brachyhyops Cyretherium Daeodon Entelodon Eoentelodon Paraentelodon
Fourteen years ago today I finally bugged my parents to let me create an e-mail account and register for Neoseeker, after several months of screwing around posting as a guest. And here I sit now, typing this while sitting in the same office chair I sat in back then, though the upholstery is threadbare and torn and the cushion is flaking and coming out.
Even the things that stay the same change.
I was just a shade older than 14 at the time, so naturally a lot of this is pure cringe for me to look back on now. There's a vague temptation to scrub as much as I can clean, to sweep my teenage nonsense under the rug, but I can't quite bring myself to do anything like it. Even as much as some of the derpier stuff gives me conniptions (I really can't tell what I was going for sometimes. What kind person is both edgy and says things like "okies?" Okies? Seriously?) I can see my writing get less dumb over time, my reactions to people and things less childish. It's kind of crazy watching myself grow up over my time on this site.
And all of it started because I was bored in an 8th grade technology class that had nothing at all to do with technology, lol. The girl who sat next to me convinced me for a little while to play Neopets, but teenage me was not about that life and I quickly abandoned that and moved on to simply being tremendously bored. A Google search for an old game I kind of liked back in the day called Quest 64 brought me to Neoseeker, and things developed from there.
I hestitate to do shoutouts because I know beyond a shadow of a doubt that I'll miss so many people, but I'll try anyway. God knows most of the people I'll miss are long gone anyway, lol.
Neoseeker isn't what it once was of course, and most of the people I was friends with are long gone, but I still check in from time to time and will probably continue to do so. Maybe there's a little bit of activity left in me, and who knows, maybe I'll make a friend or two along the way yet. I suppose I ought to close this post by expressing my gratitude to Redemption and all the Neoseeker staff who created and maintained this site, and everyone I've interacted with over this half-lifetime who made it such a special place that will hopefully live on in my memory for a very long time to come.
As I don't have broadband yet I won't be able to. I miss my Raptor "Talon". I hope I don't have to restart although I suspect I will have to. And I possibly have to buy Scorched Earth too. I had a squadron of wyvern. Nevermind, eh?
If you are allergic to cashews and/or Pistachios do not try this as it may set off your allergic reaction.
Why I'm trying it. So having no way of getting unsweetened gum in the UK plus having the added benefit of possibly calming GORD and kicking any possible H. Pylori (ulcer causing bacteria), I decided to try this.
The taste and texture. It is crunchy and fragments when you chew it and begins to bind into a tough gum turning white. It tastes like pine or how you would imagine pine disinfectant may taste like without the bitterness. You get used to the taste as it seems to fade a little, If you hate the taste of pine, this may not be for you.
Longevity. If you chew for chewing's sake this will last ages. The pine taste will be delicate throughout, possibly fading entirely (chewed this for an hour and taste was delicate).
Why do some folk friend me then want things? Seriously, I just got that today. I may do a friend clearance as I'm sure these folk are just out to get freebies (pokemon especially).
Don't be afraid just to chat. I may have mental health problems and I won't bite or drop a giant laser beam on your head. You know, because you're too far away and sitting at a computer possibly half the world away (plus I don't have access to life erasing weapons). I'm not great at starting conversations via PM system as I'm awkward. I understand if you unclick me from your friend roster.
Fossils belonging to prehistoric creatures have been discovered for thousands upon thousands of years! In China, various fossils were believed to have been fire breathing dragons. While in Europe they were thought to have been giants or other biblical beasts. In this article we will learn about the first dinosaurs to ever be identified by science!
The First The first dinosaur to be discovered was uncovered in the limestone quarry at Cornwell near Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire. This single bone was then delivered to the professor of Chemistry at the University of Oxford; Robert Plot. A year later, in 1677, Plot successfully classified the bone as the femur of a large animal. But what large animal exactly? This femur was too large to belong to any known species. So, Robert Plot concluded that it was a portion of a giant's leg; a giant similar to Goliath from the Bible. Now jumping ahead by a few years to a time between 1815 and 1824 a geology professor at Oxford by the name William Buckland gathered more fossils ad described this animal as a new species in a scientific journal -- Megalosaurus.
The Second Meanwhile, in 1822, some large fossilized teeth were discovered by Mary Ann Mantell; the wife of the English geologist Gideon Mantell. At first, the Royal Society of London dismissed these findings as the teeth from a fish or perhaps a rhinoceros. Convinced, Gideon Mantell was sure that he had something different so he seeked the help of Samuel Stutchbury, an English naturalist and geologist, in September 1824. Stutchbury pointed out that these fossilized teeth resembled those of an iguana; a ginormous iguana to be exact. With this new information Gideon Mantell eventually settled on a name for the beast -- Iguanodon or "iguana-tooth." Mantell formerly published his findings on Feburary 10, 1825 when presenting a paper to the Royal Society of London.
The Third A letter written by Gideon Mantell was sent to the Professor Benjamin Silliman on July 20, 1832. Inside this letter Mantell described that when a gunpowder explosion had destroyed a quarry rock face in Tilgate Forest it revealed the bones of a saurian. A local fossil dealer assembled together approximately fifty pieces before Mantell purchased them. Luckily for Mantell these pieces were able to form together a partially articulated skeleton. And it was a matter of time before others pointed out the presence of plates and spikes. This one had body armor! In November of that same year Mantell decided to create a new generic name: Hylaeosaurus. When compared to Megalosaurus and Iguanodon, Hylaeosaurus was the most bizarre but it never received the same popularity as the other two. Introducing: Dinosauria And at long last, in 1842, the English paleontologist Richard Owen published a general account for the group of Mesozoic terrestrial reptiles and coined the name Dinosauria from Greek δεινός (deinos) "terrible, powerful, wondrous" + σαῦρος (sauros) "lizard". Richard Owen used three genera of reptiles as a baseline for this new taxon: the carnivorous Megalosaurus, the herbivorous Iguanodon, and the armored Hylaeosaurus.
Joined Neoseeker in 2003 as alleniverson3. Made another account in 2007 as Cattle Mutilation. Came back to Neoseeker in 2018. Changed name to something less obscure and disgusting. I like vidya games and wrestling. I'm sometimes awkward as hell. My knees hurt.
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Dinosaurs are reptiles, but what distinguishes them from other reptiles such as lizards and crocodiles? Well, the answer to this question is rather quite simple. It is all in the hips.
Most reptiles such as lizards and crocodiles have sprawling or semi-sprawling legs with their hips being nearly parallel to the ground. Dinosaur legs, on the other hand, are positioned directly beneath their bodies; similar to a human. This new stature is all thanks to an opening in the hip socket. This evolutionary design gave early dinosaurs the cutting edge over other reptiles whom lacked the hole in the hip. Dinosaurs were faster, more agile, and had greater stamina when compared to the relatively sluggish reptiles that lived along side them.
During their long reign, dinosaurs shared the planet with a multitude of other prehistoric creatures. Marine reptiles such as the plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs in addition to the flying reptiles -- the pterosaurs. But do not be mistaken as these were not dinosaurs because they lacked the unique hip placement. Marine reptiles were simply reptiles that adapted to an aquatic lifestyle during the Mesozoic Era and pterosaurs could be seen as cousins to the dinosaurs that branched off from a common ancestor. Clades of Dinosaurs Dinosauria can be split into two large clades, the Saurischians ("lizard-hipped") and the Ornithischians ("bird-hipped"). Saurischians possessed a three-pronged pelvic structure with the pubis aiming forward. Examples of Saurischians include Tyrannosaurus, Velociraptor, and Brachiosaurus. While Ornithischians had their pubis rotated backwards, parallel to the ischium, giving the animal a four-pronged structure. Examples of Ornithischians include Stegosaurus, Parasaurolophus, and Triceratops.
Saurischia hip on the left. Ornithischia hip on the right.
I have found that I really cannot fit in here. Yes, I post silly statuses and post jokes but that is to cheer you guys up. Someone somewhere may need to smile, yes? I see the interaction between folk here and wish I could do the same.
Having apergers is tough and I'm isolated (socially) with frequent depression and anxiety that likes to crop up and make things even worse. At the moment I am having such an episode and communication with everyone is a challenge. This one cannot step into a conversation. Please forgive me for not being good company.
Looking for a trustworthy trading partner for Pokemon Sun. I hope to connect with someone who is faithful to trade-based evolution needs and will return pokemon to their original owners. I want to make a commitment to you in helping you with your trade needs as a real player. For any type of pokemon. I do not support people who trade for value, power, or levels. Just a friendly support partner who is willing to share pokemon together, and help with evolutions. I am a casual player, I genuinely do not care about your status.
Death is often viewed as an eternal slumber, but a human can only imagine. But for the past 140,000,000 years this little dinosaur has been trapped in its sleep.
Mei long means "soundly sleeping dragon" and was a duck-sized troodontid. It was originally uncovered by paleontologists in Liaoing, China in 2004. But what really caught everyone's attention was that M. long died, undisturbed, in its sleep. The holotype, IVPP V12733, was a mere juvenile at the time of its death. This critter was only twenty-one inches in length, but was complete and well preserved in three-dimensional detail. The hind limbs were neatly folded below the body while the youngster's snout was comfortably nuzzled beneath one of the forelimbs. This sleeping position bares a striking resemblance to that of modern birds which strengthens the theory that birds are the descendants of maniraptoran dinosaurs. A second individual was unearthed, DNHM D2154, also appears to have died in its sleep.
Although the real question is just how did Mei die? Mark Norell, an American paleontologist who participated in discovering the original specimen believes that M. long could've been a victim of noxious gas such as carbon monoxide. This would explain why the dinosaur died undisturbed. Norell also speculates that M. long was buried quickly as a result of a nearby volcanic eruption since there is a lot of ash in the surrounding sediments.